Higher education is divided into three cycles or stages: the Premier cycle, two-year course up to DEUG (Diplôme universitaire d’enseignement général) level; the Deuxième cycle, third year up to the licence followed by the one-year maîtrise; and the Troisième cycle or higher postgraduate study beginning with the Diplôme d’études approfondies (DEA) or with the Diplôme d’études supérieures spécialisées - DESS (diploma in an applied subject).
The Grandes écoles of engineering and business administration. These are competitive-entrance higher education institutions offering either four or five-year courses directly after the Baccalauréat or three-year courses after two years of classe préparatoire (preparatory class) during which students prepare for the entrance examinations to the Grandes écoles.
Vocational training lasts two to three years after the Baccalauréat. Courses may be taken in the Sections de techniciens supérieurs - STS (Advanced technicians sections) where students prepare for the Brevet de technicien supérieur - BTS (vocational training certificate for advanced technicians) and are also taught by the Instituts universitaires de technologie - IUT (polytechnics).
Some training courses have special entrance requirements and their own organization (study of medicine, pharmacy, paramedical studies, study of art and architecture, etc.).
To begin higher studies in France, foreign students must have a French baccalaureate or foreign equivalent and be able to prove that their command of French is good enough for them to take the course of their choice.
Entrance procedures vary depending on the educational institution and the chosen training course. For the Classes préparatoires for entrance to the Grandes écoles, IUTs (polytechnics) and Instituts universitaires professionalisés - IUP (professional university institutes) students are to enrol directly with the institution concerned. For Premier cycle enrolment at a university, students are required to file an entrance application before the start of the academic year.
Students are required to take a written examination and an oral to test their command of French.
It is possible to continue with one’s higher education in France and to apply for a place on a course at university. The choen institution alone will be authorized to validate a student’s previous education.
Fourth-quarter growth was modest but resilient, stable from a quarter earlier despite the social unrest of last year’s ‘gilets jaunes’ protests. Domestic demand was rocked by the demonstrations: Household spending stalled, while fixed-capital spending was hit by a drop-off in household investment. External demand beyond the Eurozone, on the other hand, was upbeat and helped offset the domestic woes. Particularly, export growth jumped on heavy-equipment deliveries. Available current-quarter indicators, meanwhile, depict uneven terrain. Economic sentiment appeared on the mend through February. That said, although industrial output hinted at a turnaround in January, private-sector activity has thus far been hit-and-miss. Moreover, Emmanuel Macron’s skirmish with protestors continues to weigh on the economy, and his political agenda looks increasingly untenable in the run-up to European elections in May.
France has been know as the capital of Fashion as well as the epicenter of culture. Paris is one of the most visited cities in the world. Musée de Louvre is one of the museums in the world that holds the largest collection of galleries. French language share the common ancestors with Spanish, Italian and Portuguese. They are devried from Vulgar Latin.